Brain and spinal cord tumors are usually found because of signs or symptoms a person is having. If a tumor is suspected, tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis. If signs or symptoms suggest you might have a brain or spinal cord tumor, your doctor will get a complete medical history, focusing on your symptoms and when they began. The doctor will also do a neurologic exam to check your brain and spinal cord function. This exam tests reflexes, muscle strength, vision, eye and mouth movement, coordination, balance, alertness, and other functions.
Diagnostic brain scans
Fully automated tissue classifier for contrast-enhanced CT scans of adult and pediatric patients.
Scans provide a detailed 3D image of the brain by taking multiple pictures of the inside of your head. Scans are used during diagnosis. They allow doctors to see whether there is a tumour and, if there is, its size and position. CT stands for Computerised Tomography. CT scanners use x-rays to build up the 3D image of the inside of your head. They take several cross-sectional pictures through your head, then use a computer to stack these 2D picture 'slices' into a 3D image. MRI scanners take pictures from several angles around you head, then build these into a 3D image.
Pediatric CT and Image Gently
The utility of CT in patients of all ages is undeniable , and was paralleled by its increasing use over the last decade of the 20 th and the first decade of the 21 st centuries [5, 6]. This use, which obviated other procedures which were more invasive and carried increased acute risks, such as diagnostic rather than therapeutic laparotomies  , nevertheless also accrued increased radiation exposure. Since that time, the Image Gently Alliance, which focuses on children, and the Image Wisely campaign, which focuses on adult patients, have made significant inroads into the education of radiologists, technologists, referring physicians and the public, with a goal of decreasing unnecessary radiation exposure by improving justification and optimization.
Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that radiation exposure from pediatric CT scanning is associated with small excess cancer risks. However, the majority of CT scans are performed on adults, and most radiation-induced cancers appear during middle or old age, in the same age range as background cancers. Consequently, a logical next step is to investigate the effects of CT scanning in adulthood on lifetime cancer risks by conducting adult-based, appropriately designed epidemiological studies. Here we estimate the sample size required for such studies to detect CT-associated risks. This was achieved by incorporating different age-, sex-, time- and cancer type-dependent models of radiation carcinogenesis into an in silico simulation of a population-based cohort study.